Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Sci Med Sport. 2013 Mar;16(2):172-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.06.002. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Influence of post-warm-up recovery time on swim performance in international swimmers.

Author information

  • 1Department of Sport and Exercise Science, School of Life Science, Northumberland Building, Northumbria University, UK.



Swimmers must enter a marshalling call-room 20min prior to racing, which results in some swimmers completing their warm-up 45min pre-race. Since a recovery period longer than 15-20min may prove problematic, this study examined 200m freestyle performance after a 20 and 45min post-warm-up recovery period.


Eight international swimmers completed this randomised and counter-balanced study.


After a standardised warm-up, swimmers rested for either 20 (20min) or 45min (45min) prior to completing a 200m freestyle time-trial (TT). Core temperature (T(core)), blood lactate (BL), heart rate and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at baseline, post-warm-up, pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at 3min post-TT.


T(core) was similar after the warm-up under both conditions, however, at pre-TT T(core) was greater under 20min (mean±SD; 20min 37.8±0.2 vs. 45min 37.5±0.2°C; P=0.002). BL was similar between conditions at all-time points before the TT (P>0.05). Swimmers demonstrated a 1.5±1.1% improvement in performance under 20min (20min 125.74±3.64 vs. 45min 127.60±3.55s; P=0.01). T(core) was similar between conditions at immediately post-TT and 3min post-TT (P>0.05), however, BL was higher at these time points under 20min (P<0.05). Heart rate and RPE were similar between conditions at all-time points (P>0.05).


200m freestyle performance is faster 20min post-warm-up when compared to 45min probably due to better T(core) maintenance. This has implications for swim race preparation as warm-up procedures should be completed close to entering the pre-race call room, in order to maintain elevated core temperature.

Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk