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Front Neurol. 2012 Jul 2;3:100. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00100. eCollection 2012.

EEG-fMRI Methods for the Study of Brain Networks during Sleep.

Author information

  • 1Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, USA.

Abstract

Modern neuroimaging methods may provide unique insights into the mechanism and role of sleep, as well as into particular mechanisms of brain function in general. Many of the recent neuroimaging studies have used concurrent EEG and fMRI, which present unique technical challenges ranging from the difficulty of inducing sleep in the MRI environment to appropriate instrumentation and data processing methods to obtain artifact free data. In addition, the use of EEG-fMRI during sleep leads to unique data interpretation issues, as common approaches developed for the analysis of task-evoked activity do not apply to sleep. Reviewed are a variety of statistical approaches that can be used to characterize brain activity from fMRI data acquired during sleep, with an emphasis on approaches that investigate the presence of correlated activity between brain regions. Each of these approaches has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in concert with the theoretical questions of interest. Specifically, fundamental theories of sleep control and function should be considered when designing these studies and when choosing the associated statistical approaches. For example, the notion that local brain activity during sleep may be triggered by local, use-dependent activity during wakefulness may be tested by analyzing sleep networks as statistically independent components. Alternatively, the involvement of regions in more global processes such as arousal may be investigated with correlation analysis.

KEYWORDS:

EEG; dynamic causal modeling; fMRI; graph analysis; independent component analysis; methodology; neuroimaging; sleep networks

PMID:
22783221
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3387650
Free PMC Article
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