Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Sep;56(9):4922-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00921-12. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Role of oxidative stress in persister tolerance.

Author information

  • 1Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

Persisters are dormant phenotypic variants of regular cells that are tolerant to antibiotics and play an important role in recalcitrance of chronic infections to therapy. Persisters can be produced stochastically in a population untreated with antibiotics. At the same time, a deterministic component of persister formation has also been documented in a population of cells with DNA damaged by fluoroquinolone treatment. Expression of the SOS response under these conditions induces formation of persisters by increasing expression of the TisB toxin. This suggests that other stress responses may also contribute to persister formation. Of particular interest is oxidative stress that pathogens encounter during infection. Activated macrophages produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which induce the SoxRS and OxyR regulons. Genes controlled by these regulons deactivate the oxidants and promote repair. We examined the ability of oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ) to affect persister formation. Preincubation of cells with PQ produced a dramatic increase in the number of persisters surviving challenge with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. PQ did not affect killing by kanamycin or ampicillin. Persisters in a culture treated with PQ that survived a challenge with a fluoroquinolone were also highly tolerant to other antibiotics. PQ induces SoxRS, which in turn induces expression of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug-resistant (MDR) pump. Fluoroquinolones are extruded by this MDR pump, and the effect of PQ on antibiotic tolerance was largely abolished in a mutant that was defective in the pump. It appears that PQ, acting through AcrAB-TolC, reduces the concentration of fluoroquinolones in the cells. This allows a larger fraction of cells to become persisters in the presence of a fluoroquinolone. Analysis of a lexA3 mutant indeed showed a dependence of persister induction under these conditions on SOS. These findings show that induction of a classical resistance mechanism, MDR efflux, by oxidative stress leads to an increase in multidrug-tolerant persister cells.

PMID:
22777047
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3421885
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk