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J Sex Med. 2012 Sep;9(9):2438-47. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02810.x. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

The direct and indirect costs among U.S. privately insured employees with hypogonadism.

Author information

  • 1Analysis Group, Inc, New York, NY 10020, USA. akaltenboeck@analysisgroup.com

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

While previous studies have noted that hypogonadism (HG) may pose a significant economic and quality-of-life burden, no studies have evaluated the impact of HG on healthcare utilization and costs in the United States.

AIM:

Compare direct (health care) and indirect (disability leave or medical absence) costs between privately insured U.S. employees with HG and controls without HG.

METHODS:

The study sample included 4,269 male employees, ages 35-64, with ≥ 2 HG diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: 257.2x) or ≥ 1 HG diagnosis and ≥ 1 claim for testosterone therapy, 1/1/2005-3/31/2009, identified from a large, private insurance administrative database that includes medical, prescription drug, and disability claims data. The index date was the most recent HG diagnosis that had continuous eligibility for at least 1 year before (baseline period) and 1 year after (study period). Employees with HG were matched 1:1 on age, region, salaried vs. nonsalaried employment status, and index year to controls without HG.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Descriptive analyses compared demographic characteristics, comorbidities, resource utilization, direct and indirect costs inflated to USD 2009. Multivariate analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics were used to estimate risk-adjusted costs.

RESULTS:

HG employees and controls had a mean age of 51 years. HG employees compared with controls had higher baseline comorbidity rates, including hyperlipidemia (50.2% vs. 25.3%), hypertension (37.7% vs. 21.1%), back/neck pain (32.0% vs. 15.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (7.1% vs. 0.3%) (all P < 0.0001). HG employees had higher mean study period direct ($10,914 vs. $3,823) and indirect costs ($3,204 vs. $1,450); HG-related direct costs were $832 (all P < 0.0001). Risk-adjusted direct ($9,291 vs. $5,248) and indirect ($2,729 vs. $1,840) costs were also higher for HG employees (all P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Employees with HG had higher comorbidity rates and costs compared with controls. Given the low HG-related costs, a primary driver of costs among HG patients appears to be their comorbidity burden.

© 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

PMID:
22738380
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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