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J Infect. 2012 Nov;65(5):431-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.06.008. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Different biological significance of sCD14 and LPS in HIV-infection: importance of the immunovirology stage and association with HIV-disease progression markers.

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  • 1Laboratory of Immunovirology, Clinic Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, IBiS, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville 41013, Spain.



Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels have been indistinctly used to measure bacterial translocation independently of the immunovirological stage in HIV infection; however, when the association of both markers with different HIV-progression end-points has been studied, discrepant results have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between LPS and sCD14 in different HIV-infection immune stages and to determine the relationship between these biomarkers with established HIV-disease-progression-related markers, as T-cell immune activation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and D-dimer.


Seventy-three chronically HIV-1-infected patients with detectable HIV-1 RNA levels were analyzed. LPS levels by use of limulus lysate assay, sCD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein and inflammation-coagulation-associated biomarkers were assessed.


In this study, we found that LPS and sCD14 levels were only associated when low CD4+ T-cell levels and high HIV RNA levels were present. In addition, only sCD14 levels, but not LPS, were independently associated with HIV-disease progression-related markers, supporting the clinical importance of sCD14.


These results indicate that LPS and sCD14 have a different biological significance and should not be indistinctly used without taking the HIV immunovirological stage into account.

Copyright © 2012 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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