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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jul;92(1):17-20. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2012.68.

Best practice in the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to address clinical pharmacology regulatory questions.

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  • 1Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.


Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly used by drug developers to evaluate the effect of patient factors on drug exposure. Between June 2008 and December 2011, the Office of Clinical Pharmacology at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received 25 submissions containing PBPK analyses. This report summarizes the essential content of a PBPK analysis needed in a regulatory submission for the purpose of addressing clinical pharmacology questions.

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