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J Immunol. 2012 Jul 15;189(2):744-54. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1102244. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Biochemical and biologic characterization of exosomes and microvesicles as facilitators of HIV-1 infection in macrophages.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Abstract

Exosomes and microvesicles (MV) are cell membranous sacs originating from multivesicular bodies and plasma membranes that facilitate long-distance intercellular communications. Their functional biology, however, remains incompletely understood. Macrophage exosomes and MV isolated by immunoaffinity and sucrose cushion centrifugation were characterized by morphologic, biochemical, and molecular assays. Lipidomic, proteomic, and cell biologic approaches uncovered novel processes by which exosomes and MV facilitate HIV-1 infection and dissemination. HIV-1 was "entrapped" in exosome aggregates. Robust HIV-1 replication followed infection with exosome-enhanced fractions isolated from infected cell supernatants. MV- and exosome-facilitated viral infections are affected by a range of cell surface receptors and adhesion proteins. HIV-1 containing exosomes readily completed its life cycle in human monocyte-derived macrophages but not in CD4(-) cells. The data support a significant role for exosomes as facilitators of viral infection.

PMID:
22711894
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3786185
Free PMC Article
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