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Transl Stroke Res. 2012 Jul;3(Suppl 1):39-51. doi: 10.1007/s12975-012-0185-6. Epub 2012 May 4.

Mixed cerebrovascular disease and the future of stroke prevention.


Stroke prevention efforts typically focus on either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This approach is overly simplistic due to the frequent coexistence of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease. This coexistence, termed "mixed cerebrovascular disease", offers a conceptual framework that appears useful for stroke prevention strategies. Mixed cerebrovascular disease incorporates clinical and subclinical syndromes, including ischemic stroke, subclinical infarct, white matter disease of aging (leukoaraiosis), intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral microbleeds. Reliance on mixed cerebrovascular disease as a diagnostic entity may assist in stratifying risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with platelet therapy and anticoagulants. Animal models of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, particularly models of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and hypertension, offer novel means for identifying underlying mechanisms and developing focused therapy. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors represent a class of agents that, by targeting both platelets and vessel wall, provide the kind of dual actions necessary for stroke prevention, given the spectrum of disorders that characterizes mixed cerebrovascular disease.

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