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PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38674. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038674. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

Frontal non-invasive neurostimulation modulates antisaccade preparation in non-human primates.

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  • 1Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7225, INSERM UMRS 975, Institut du Cerveau et la Möelle (ICM), Paris, France. antoni.valerocabre@upmc.fr


A combination of oculometric measurements, invasive electrophysiological recordings and microstimulation have proven instrumental to study the role of the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) in saccadic activity. We hereby gauged the ability of a non-invasive neurostimulation technology, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), to causally interfere with frontal activity in two macaque rhesus monkeys trained to perform a saccadic antisaccade task. We show that online single pulse TMS significantly modulated antisaccade latencies. Such effects proved dependent on TMS site (effects on FEF but not on an actively stimulated control site), TMS modality (present under active but not sham TMS on the FEF area), TMS intensity (intensities of at least 40% of the TMS machine maximal output required), TMS timing (more robust for pulses delivered at 150 ms than at 100 post target onset) and visual hemifield (relative latency decreases mainly for ipsilateral AS). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using TMS to causally modulate antisaccade-associated computations in the non-human primate brain and support the use of this approach in monkeys to study brain function and its non-invasive neuromodulation for exploratory and therapeutic purposes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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