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ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:758512. doi: 10.1100/2012/758512. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

The expanding family of bone marrow homing factors for hematopoietic stem cells: stromal derived factor 1 is not the only player in the game.

Author information

  • 1Stem Cell Biology Program at the James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. mzrata01@louisville.edu

Abstract

The α-chemokine stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1), which binds to the CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors, directs migration and homing of CXCR4+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to bone marrow (BM) and plays a crucial role in retention of these cells in stem cell niches. However, this unique role of SDF-1 has been recently challenged by several observations supporting SDF-1-CXCR4-independent BM homing. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that HSPCs respond robustly to some bioactive lipids, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), and migrate in response to gradients of certain extracellular nucleotides, including uridine triphosphate (UTP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Moreover, the responsiveness of HSPCs to an SDF-1 gradient is enhanced by some elements of innate immunity (e.g., C3 complement cascade cleavage fragments and antimicrobial cationic peptides, such as cathelicidin/LL-37 or β2-defensin) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Since all these factors are upregulated in BM after myeloblative conditioning for transplantation, a more complex picture of homing emerges that involves several factors supporting, and in some situations even replacing, the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis.

PMID:
22701372
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3373139
Free PMC Article
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