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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Jun 19;59(25):2366-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.01.065.

Predictors of super-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy and associated improvement in clinical outcome: the MADIT-CRT (multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial with cardiac resynchronization therapy) study.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California-San Francisco, 94143, USA.



The authors investigated predictors of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) super-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) and whether super-response translated into improved event-free survival in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure (HF).


Few data exist on predictors of super-response to CRT-D and associated morbidity and mortality in mildly symptomatic HF populations.


Patients were assigned to CRT-D with paired echocardiograms at baseline and at 12 months (n = 752). Super-response was defined by the top quartile of LVEF change. Best-subset regression analysis identified predictors of LVEF super-response. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed to investigate associations of response category with development of nonfatal HF event or all-cause death.


All 191 super-responders experienced an LVEF increase of ≥14.5% (mean LVEF increase 17.5 ± 2.7%). Six predictors were associated with LVEF super-response to CRT-D therapy: female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.96; p = 0.001), no prior myocardial infarction (OR: 1.80; p = 0.005), QRS duration ≥150 ms (OR: 1.79; p = 0.007), left bundle branch block (OR: 2.05; p = 0.006), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (OR: 1.51; p = 0.035), and smaller baseline left atrial volume index (OR: 1.47; p < 0.001). Cumulative probability of HF or all-cause death at 2 years was 4% in super-responders, 11% in responders, and 26% in hypo-responders (log-rank p < 0.001 overall). In multivariate analysis, hyporesponse was associated with increased risk of HF or all-cause death, compared with super-response (hazard ratio: 5.25; 95% confidence interval: 2.01 to 13.74; p = 0.001).


Six baseline factors predicted LVEF super-response in CRT-D-treated patients with mild HF. Super-response was associated with reduced risk of subsequent cardiac events. (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy [MADIT-CRT]; NCT00180271).

Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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