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Int J Hyperthermia. 2012;28(5):466-72. doi: 10.3109/02656736.2012.677932. Epub 2012 Jun 12.

Thermal effect of endoscopic thermal vapour ablation on the lung surface in human ex vivo tissue.

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  • 1Uptake Medical Corporation, Tustin, California 92780, USA.



An investigation of the thermal effect and the potential for injury at the lung surface following thermal vapour ablation (InterVapor), an energy-based method of achieving endoscopic lung volume reduction.


Heated water vapour was delivered to fifteen ex vivo human lungs using standard clinical procedure, and the thermal effect at the visceral pleura was monitored with an infrared camera. The time-temperature response was analysed mathematically to determine a cumulative injury quotient, which was compared to published thresholds.


The cumulative injury quotients for all 71 treatments of ex vivo tissue were found to be below the threshold for first degree burn and no other markers of tissue injury at the lung surface were observed.


The safety profile for thermal vapour ablation is further supported by the demonstration that the thermal effect in a worst-case model is not expected to cause injury at the lung surface.

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