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N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 26;367(4):309-18. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203859. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia.

Collaborators (2737)

Gerstein H, Yusuf S, Rydén L, Bosch J, Richardson L, Dagenais G, Diaz R, Johnston P, Maggioni A, Probstfield J, Ramachandran A, Riddle M, Vige R, Gerstein H, Yusuf S, Rydén L, Birkeland K, Bosch J, Budaj A, Cardona E, Chazova I, Commerford P, Dagenais G, Diaz R, Danilova L, Davies M, Fernando R, Fodor G, Gilbert R, Gomis R, Hâncu N, Hanefeld M, Hildebrandt P, Johnston P, Kacerovsky-Bielesz G, Keltai M, Kim JH, Krum H, Kültürsay H, Lanas F, Lewis BS, Lonn E, López-Jaramillo P, Maggioni A, Marin-Neto J, Marre M, McKelvie R, McQueen M, Mendoza I, Morillo C, Pan C, Pīrāgs V, Probstfield J, Profozic V, Ramachandran A, Ratner R, Riddle M, Richardson L, Rosenstock J, Spinas GA, Sreenan S, Stoel I, Syvänne M, Vige R, Yale JF, Dagenais G, McKelvie R, Avezum A, Bahit MC, Bogaty P, Bordeleau L, Chacόn C, Corson M, Fodor G, Harper WL, Halon D, Hildebrandt P, Magloire P, Mann J, Morillo C, Pavlova V, Punthakee Z, Silva J, Syvänne M, Tsang B, Yakubovich N, Maggioni A, Probstfield J, Commerford P, Davies M, Gilbert R, Johnston P, Marin-Neto J, McQueen M, Gerstein H, Hanefeld M, Johnston P, Ramachandran A, Ratner R, Riddle M, Rosenstock J, Yale JF, Abdallah A, Ahmad S, Bosch J, Chandra J, Chandra R, Cukierman-Yaffee T, Dyal L, Gerstein H, Jung H, Joldersma L, MacRae L, MacRae S, Malik S, Mead A, Pasha F, Pazmino-Canizares J, Pogue J, Pohl K, Richardson L, Sakalas A, Tyrwhitt J, Yusuf S, Diaz R, Ahuad Guerrero R, Alebuena A, Alvarez N, Alzogaray M, Amuchastegui M, Andres M, Angos M, Baglivo H, Barbieri M, Bassi F, Bello F, Bono J, Bustamante Labarta M, Bustos B, Caccavo A, Calveira M, Camino A, Cantero M, Capozzi M, Cardone M, Cartasegna L, Cassetari A, Castellanos R, Chavez Caballero R, Cipullo M, Contreras A, Coria J, Corinaldesi F, Costa G, Crespo C, Cruz M, Cuello J, Cuneo C, Del Corro I, Diez R, Dituro C, Dominguez A, Facta A, Faingold C, Farah M, Fares Taie A, Fernandez A, Ferrari A, Ferrari N, Garcia Monteverde C, Garrido M, Giachello C, Gonzalez M, Gutierrez N, Guzman L, Guzman P, Hasbani E, Henquin R, Hershon A, Hirschon Alvarez Prado A, Hominal M, Hrabar A, Imposti H, La Grutta M, Lanchiotti P, Lobo Marquez L, Lopez Santi R, Lowenstein J, Lugo M, Luqueci M, Mainini S, Majul C, Manzano R, Manzur S, Marcucci G, Marino M, Massari F, Mendez N, Molina M, Montaña O, Mulazzi M, Nardone L, Odetto I, Orlandini A, Oviedo A, Paez O, Parnas A, Patron FR, Pedernera C, Pelagagge M, Plastino M, Polari P, Pomposiello J, Porta A, Prado A, Quiroz M, Ramirez A, Rodriguez C, Rodriguez M, Ronderos R, Sago L, Sanchez A, Sanchez R, Sandrin A, Schygiel P, Sernia V, Sinay I, Smith Casabella T, Sosa Liprandi A, Sosa Liprandi M, Soso L, Sposetti G, Stisman D, Streitenberger P, Suarez G, Tonin H, Ulla M, Valdez J, Vico M, Villamil A, Villarino A, Viscaya Castro A, Visco V, Vogel D, Waisman F, Zaidman C, Krum H, Amerena J, Applebe A, Aylward P, Binnekamp M, Bruce I, Burdeniuk C, Burnet R, Colman P, Colquhoun D, Davis S, De Looze F, De Pasquale C, D'Emden M, Eaton H, Farshid A, Foulanos S, Galanos J, Gordon G, Guhu M, Ho J, Jeffery I, Jerums G, Kwan M, Lefkovits J, Luu S, MacIsaac R, Marjason J, Mohabbati V, Nankervis A, O'Neal D, Perera N, Poynten A, Rahman A, Razak S, Roberts T, Sebastian M, Simpson R, Soldatos G, Sullivan D, Teede H, Tiong F, Topliss D, Torpy D, Waddell-Smith K, Waites J, Wenman J, Whelan A, Williams L, Yeap B, Yeow W, Yong G, Kacerovsky-Bielesz G, Aczel S, Azimy N, Bertha P, Blocher J, Bohnel C, Brath H, Breuss J, De Campo A, Drexel H, Ettmuller Y, Feder A, Feinboeck C, Gulz E, Hofmann M, Hoppichler F, Jahnel H, Jankovic V, Kann T, Kathrein T, Kotter T, Kratz E, Kreuzwieser E, Loreck C, Ludvik B, Marte T, Mellitzer K, Nistler S, Placher-Sorko G, Prager R, Rein P, Riedl M, Säly C, Schernthaner G, Schichka E, Seidlhofer C, Sonnenfeld M, Stefan H, Steiner K, Thomas B, Toplak H, Urstoger K, Vetter B, Vonbank A, Waldschutz W, Wallner F, Winkler F, Danilova L, Goncharik D, Lazareva I, Lichorad N, Mrochek A, Murashko N, Radyuk D, Ramanovski A, Sudzhaeva S, Sujayeva V, Yarashevich N, Campbell G, Marshall S, West A, Marin-Neto J, Abreu F, Alves M, Ayoub-Aidar J, Barros M, Barros-Silveira J, Blacher M, Costa E, Costa F, Daltro C, Delana J, Eliaschewitz F, Facanha C, Feitosa G, Figueiredo J, Forti A, Franco D, Franken M, Freire F, Garcia V, Gouvea-Neto A, Grofallo S, Kanedlai N, Kerr-Saraiva J, Ladeira R, Leaes P, Lemos M, Lima F, Lima Filho M, Macedo L, Manenti E, Marin-Neto J, Monte O, Mossman A, Mothe F, Mouco O, Moyses Golbert M, Nasser Hissa L, Nasser-Hissa M, Nicolau J, Nigro Maia L, Ninno T, Nunes C, Oliveira C, Oliveira O, Passos da silva R, Pericles-Esteves J, Rabelo L, Rabelo-Alves Junior A, Rassi S, Rech R, Roldan F, Salles J, Sampaio C, Seabra A, Sealissi N, Seixas A, Sena R, Shehadeh I, Teixeira M, Turin H, Vicente Serrano C Jr, Vidigal M, Vilela M, Wajchenberg B, Dagenais G, Lonn E, Abbott C, Abu-Bakare A, Ardilouze J, Auersperg E, Bailey A, Bailey G, Baillargeon J, Beaurivage C, Belair J, Belanger A, Bellabarba D, Berlingieri J, Bernier F, Bhargava R, Bhesania T, Booth W, Bose S, Boulianne M, Bourgeois S, Breton D, Brossoit R, Buithieu J, Campeau J, Carlson B, Carpentier A, Cavalcanti R, Cha J, Chagnon P, Chan Y, Chessex C, Chiasson J, Chouinard S, Clayton D, Conway J, Crepeau J, Cudmore D, D'Ignazio G, Doig G, Dominguez M, Dube F, Dumas R, Dupuis R, Dyrda I, Eddy D, Eiley D, Fox H, Fratesi S, Gallant S, Garceau C, Garfield N, Germain C, Glazer S, Gosselin G, Gould D, Grills G, Halle J, Hardin P, Harper W, Heath J, Heath V, Hivert M, Ho K, Houde G, Hramiak I, Hutchinson A, Huynh T, Ilie-Haynes R, Imran S, Islam A, Iwanochko M, Jones C, Joyce C, Kirouac I, Kumar R, Lamothe M, Langlois M, Lauzon C, Lavoie M, Leader R, Lecours S, Lepage S, Lochnan H, Ma P, Malik S, McLean A, Mecci S, Mehta P, Mercier M, Miller D, Morisset A, Nawaz S, Nisker W, Nyomba G, O'Keefe D, Palardy J, Parekh P, Paul T, Perron P, Pesant M, Phillips R, Pruneau G, Quintin I, Raby K, Richard C, Rosenfeld G, Saulnier D, Shaban J, Shah A, Shu D, Sigal R, Silverman M, Singh J, Sivucha W, Skamene A, Sliwowicz D, Smith R, St Hilaire R, Steinson D, Sussex B, Tan K, Tannous R, Telner A, Theroux P, Tsoukas C, Tsoukas G, van Buuren J, VanRossum N, Vexler R, Vizel S, Warnica W, Weingert M, Wilson R, Wilson R, Wong W, Woo V, Yale J, Lanas F, Acevedo M, Alwyn C, Baier E, Baier S, Galloso R, Lahsen R, Lorenas G, Montecinos A, Montecinos M, Pineda P, Pollak F, Sapunar J, Serrano V, Stockins B, Varleta P, Yovanovich J, Zambra F, Pan C, Ba J, Bao Y, Bi Y, Bu S, Chen B, Chen H, Chen H, Chen J, Chen L, Chen L, Chen M, Chen Y, Chen Y, Cui J, Dong M, Feng P, Feng Z, Gao C, Gao F, Gao X, Gao Z, Gong Y, Guang L, Guo X, Han F, Han X, Hou X, Hu R, Ji L, Jia J, Jia W, Jiao X, Jin X, Kuang J, Li M, Li Q, Li X, Li Y, Ling Y, Liu F, Liu Z, Lu B, Lu J, Lu Z, Lv X, Ning G, Peng Y, Ren Y, Shao Y, Shi Y, Shu X, Sun H, Sun L, Sun X, Tang K, Tian H, Tian H, Wang C, Wang F, Wang L, Wang Q, Wang W, Wang X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Wen J, Wu C, Wu H, Wu H, Wu J, Wu M, Xing X, Xue Y, Yan L, Yan S, Yang H, Yang N, Yang W, Yang Z, Yao J, Yao J, Yao L, Yu D, Yu H, Yu M, Yu X, Yuan L, Yuan M, Yuan S, Yuan W, Yuan Y, Yuan Z, Zeng T, Zhang J, Zhang R, Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhao L, Zheng B, Zheng J, Zheng J, Zhou W, Zhu N, Zhu Y, Zou D, Zou J, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Morillo C, Accini JL, Bohorquez R, Botero R, Cure C, Figueredo M, Hernandez E, Kattah W, Llamas A, Orozco L, Pava L, Perez M, Pineda M, Quintero A, Quiros R, Urina M, Velez S, Profozic V, Altabas V, Baotic I, Berkovic M, Goldoni V, Kerum T, Mirosevic G, Tarle D, Vidovic I, Zjacic-Rotkvic V, Hildebrandt P, Abbas R, Andersen H, Auscher S, Baumbach L, Brockstedt H, Christensen P, Christiansen M, Clemmensen K, Egstrup K, Gislason G, Haar D, Hansen K, Heden Andersen P, Helleberg K, Hermansen K, Holmer J, Jeppesen J, Klausen I, Koustrup-Sonder T, Krarup T, Lerche S, Lervang H, Linde B, Lund P, Lund S, Madsbed S, Molvig J, Orskov C, Ostergaaard O, Perrild H, Pietraszek A, Ralfkjaer N, Roenne H, Rokkedal Nielsen J, Seibaek M, Soendergaard H, Sorensen L, Sundahl Mortensen L, Torp-Pedersen C, Tuxen C, Urhammer S, Vadstrup E, Pirags V, Ambos A, Janson A, Rudenko P, Viitas L, Syvänne M, Aranko S, Badeau M, Eriksson J, Haapamäki H, Kajander O, Kuusisto A, Luukkonen S, Mäkelä J, Nieminen S, Niskanen L, Ripatti J, Ruotsalainen S, Saltevo J, Sävelä K, Strand J, Valle T, Virkamäki A, Marre M, Aboud E, Alavoine L, Bekherraz A, Bohme P, Bourezane H, Catargi B, Charpentier G, Clergeot A, Courreges J, Delmas T, Duengler F, Feknous C, Gendre D, Guerci B, Hadjadj S, Kerlan V, Laguerre N, Le Potier J, Lombardo F, Malville E, Marechaud R, Mattei C, Moreira J, Penfornis A, Petit C, Pinel J, Piquel X, Raccah D, Reznik Y, Rod A, Roudaut N, Rousseau E, Schillo F, Schmitt B, Sonnet E, Torremocha F, Travert F, Vanhoute C, Vimeux M, Hanefeld M, Abdollahnia R, Adamidou A, Arslan S, Bach-Kliegel B, Bartusch B, Bauer N, Bieler T, Blankenfeld H, Boeckmann U, Busch K, Butzer R, Chenchanna-Merzhaeuser M, Denger R, Deutsch C, Diessel S, Donati-Hirsch I, Dornisch M, Enghofer K, Fleig T, Forst T, Frommherz M, Goeller K, Habbig J, Hadziselimovic S, Hamann A, Hampel T, Heger S, Helmes C, Hoffman C, Hohberg C, Humpert P, Kamke A, Kamke W, Kindermann P, Klein C, Klein D, Koehler A, Kuehn A, Langer K, Limmer S, Loew A, Maimer A, Marck C, Meier G, Methner-Friederich M, Metzler W, Meyer K, Miftari N, Milde J, Minnich J, Molkewehrum M, Morcos M, Mueller-Hoff C, Nguyen M, Nishwitz M, Oldenburg J, Ott P, Pauli K, Pauly B, Pfeiffer A, Pfuetzner A, Pischa U, Radke R, Reismann P, Riemer M, Rochlitz H, Rudofsky G, Ruhla S, Sammler A, Schaper F, Schiemenz K, Scholz G, Schumm-Draeger P, Segiet T, Segner A, Seissler J, Spahn S, Stier U, Tonon G, von Amelunxen S, von Schacky C, Wilhelm B, Wilhelm K, Witt K, Wuechner-Hofmann S, Keltai M, Baranyai M, Birkus Z, Foldesi I, Gaal Z, Harcsa E, Hati K, Hohmann Z, Istenes I, Jozsef I, Juhasz E, Kempler P, Keresztes B, Keresztes K, Kis-Gombos P, Kovacs I, Kozma T, Laszlo Z, Noori E, Nyirati G, Papp Z, Patkay J, Poor F, Pusztai P, Putz Z, Rigo E, Sereg M, Simon K, Somogyi A, Sumegi J, Szabo A, Szabo J, Szigeti S, Szilveszter D, Tarko M, Varga C, Varga Szabo L, Voros P, Ramachandran A, Arathi, Aravind S, Badgandi M, Balaji M, Balaji V, Chamukuttan S, Devi Manduva P, Fatima S, Ganapathy B, George O, George P, Jaffar M, Jain P, Kamath P, Karthik V, Koshy G, Krishnan L, Kumar H, Lal P, Mithal A, Modi S, Mohan V, Moses V, Oomen R, Pais P, Pati P, Pendsey S, Rai P, Rajagopal R, Ramu M, Ranjit U, Rao P, Senthil V, Seshaiah V, Sethi B, Shah P, Sharma R, Shetty S, Shobha A, Siddharth R, Sridhar G, Sudeep K, Sunil C, Sunitha S, Suresh S, Thomas N, Vageesh A, Sreenan S, Anwer Z, Barton J, Behan L, Bell M, Cullen M, Dineen S, Draman Yusof M, Dunne F, Gibney J, Hussain T, Khan M, Kinsley B, Kyithar P, Lavin F, McGowan A, McGurk C, Mirza A, Mohammadi B, O'Brien T, O'Connell J, O'Halloran D, O'Shea D, Roberts G, Tomkin G, Wan Mahmood W, Lewis BS, Abramod-Ness R, Adawi F, Aharon B, Backer M, Beniashvili A, Berliner A, Bloch L, Bugelman D, Butnaru A, Cohen O, Cohen Y, Frenkel M, Glant M, Gustava B, Guttman H, Halabi S, Halon D, Harman-Boehm I, Ilany J, Karkabi B, Khader N, Khaskia A, Khudyak Y, Klainman E, Kogan N, Lender D, Levin I, Mardi T, Marmor A, Mosseri M, Nabriski D, Omary M, Orlovsky S, Peres D, Quasim M, Raz I, Remesnik M, Rogowski O, Rozenfeld I, Scharr D, Shnifer I, Shuster T, Solomon R, Steiner H, Tzivoni D, Wolfson N, Yossef Z, Zahger D, Zeltser D, Zimlichman R, Maggioni A, Aina F, Ariatti C, Bonetti R, Cacciatore F, Calcinaro F, Corona G, De Maria P, Del Prato S, Derosa G, Di Pasquale G, Falorni A, Fanelli R, Fedele D, Filorizzo G, Fogari R, Furgi G, Ghio A, Giorda C, Gregori G, Iannuzzi G, Lapolla A, Luciano B, Lucotti P, Maggi A, Marafetti L, Marchese T, Martino G, Marzotti S, Miccoli R, Monti LD, Moretti L, Palvarini M, Petacchi R, Piarulli F, Piatti PM, Rudi S, Santeusanio F, Sesti G, Setola E, Sforza A, Shehaj E, Veniani M, Viviani G, Zigoura E, Kim JH, Chae S, Cho D, Cho E, Cho Y, Choi Y, Chung M, Hong E, Hong Y, Jeong M, Kim B, Kim D, Kim H, Kim I, Kim J, Kim J, Kim P, Kim S, Kim S, Koo B, Kwok S, Kwon H, Lee J, Lee J, Lim J, Oh S, Ohn J, Park C, Park H, Park K, Seung K, Son H, Woo J, Yoon K, Pirags V, Ansmite B, Balcere I, Bumbure A, Ducena K, Lejnieks A, Rasa I, Ritenberga R, Romanova M, Salmina I, Steina S, Pirags V, Badariene J, Gailiuniene S, Grigonis S, Juskiene R, Petrulioniene Z, Sakalyte G, Stasiunas T, Sulskiene M, Urbonaite B, Zarankiene R, Ziukaite R, Cardona E, Arechavaleta R, Beltran-Jaramillo T, Calvo-Vargas C, Campillo-Cardenas C, Cardona D, Carmona-Huerta J, Cedano-Limon M, Comellas-De M, Dominguez C, Gomez-Cruz J, Gonzalez-Perez R, Illescas J, Jimenez-Ramos S, Lopez-Alvarado A, Marquez-Rodriguez E, Martinez G, Pascoe S, Plascencia Vazquez O, Rodriguez H, Ruiz-Cornejo M, Velasco-Sanchez G, Vidrio-Velazquez M, Villeda-Espinosa E, Stoel I, Badings E, Bartels G, Bruggink-Andre de la Porte P, Bruijns E, Cornel J, De Milliano P, De Mulder M, De Swart J, Derks A, Dirkali A, Droste J, Galjee M, Hautvast R, Hermans W, Holwerda N, Ilmer B, Kofflard M, Kooistra-Huizer J, Kurvers M, Langerveld J, Leenders C, Liem A, Lok D, Neumann D, Nierop P, Plomp K, Posma J, Reichert C, Roeters Van Lennep H, Ronner E, Said S, Takens L, Umans V, Van der Sluis AA, Van der Zwaan C, Van Dobbenburgh J, Van Es A, Van Hessen M, Van Mechelen R, Van Miltenburg-Van Zijl A, Van Zeijl L, Veerhoek M, Viergever E, Weijers EE, Willems F, Birkeland K, Blix I, Cooper J, Debowska A, Erichsen K, Fossum J, Gjertsen E, Grill V, Gudnason S, Hoye K, Istad H, Winther J, Joakimsen R, Jorde R, Larsen I, Mella B, Otterstad J, Risberg K, Skare K, Skeie S, Sommervoll L, Tandberg A, Whitfield R, Wium C, Fernando R, Cunanan E, Fernando-Catindig E, Gomez M, Jaring C, Lantion-Ang F, Licaros M, Lim J, Lim-Abrahan M, Madronio E, Panelo A, Raboca J, Ramos G, Tugna S, Budaj A, Aksamit-Bialoszewska E, Bandurska-Stankiewicz E, Baranska M, Bronisz A, Bronisz M, Chrustowski W, Cieslak B, Czupryniak L, Drazkowicz-Gozdzik B, Galuszka-Bilinska A, Gmytrasiewicz M, Janik K, Jedynasty K, Kania G, Kawka-Urbanek T, Kinalska I, Kincel K, Kleszczewska U, Kruszewski J, Loba J, Malicka J, Mielecka-Kincel M, Milczarczyk A, Milosz D, Mrowczynska A, Mytnik M, Nowakowski A, Nowakowski P, Oleskowska L, Omelanczuk-Wiech E, Pawlowski M, Poplawska A, Rucinska M, Rucinski M, Rutkowska J, Saryusz-Wolska M, Siewko K, Sikora-Frac M, Stecka-Wierzbicka J, Swiatkowski M, Swierczynski R, Szpajer M, Szymkowiak K, Tarach J, Tarasiewicz U, Wiatr D, Wojewoda P, Woszczak-Marcinkowska H, Zadrozny J, Hancu N, Albota A, Bala C, Barbonta D, Botnariu G, Bradescu O, Busegeanu M, Bzduch M, Catrinoiu D, Caziuc R, Cerghizan A, Cheta D, Cif A, Ciomos D, Cosma D, Creteanu G, Crisan I, Danciulescu R, Dobjanschi C, Dodan R, Duma L, Ferariu I, Ghenes T, Ghise G, Graur M, Ilinca M, Marton R, Mindrescu N, Morosanu A, Morosanu M, Mota M, Nafornita V, 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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.

METHODS:

In this double-blind study with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 12,536 patients who were at high risk for cardiovascular events and had impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes to receive a 1-g capsule containing at least 900 mg (90% or more) of ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids or placebo daily and to receive either insulin glargine or standard care. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes. The results of the comparison between n-3 fatty acids and placebo are reported here.

RESULTS:

During a median follow up of 6.2 years, the incidence of the primary outcome was not significantly decreased among patients receiving n-3 fatty acids, as compared with those receiving placebo (574 patients [9.1%] vs. 581 patients [9.3%]; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.10; P=0.72). The use of n-3 fatty acids also had no significant effect on the rates of major vascular events (1034 patients [16.5%] vs. 1017 patients [16.3%]; hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10; P=0.81), death from any cause (951 [15.1%] vs. 964 [15.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07; P=0.63), or death from arrhythmia (288 [4.6%] vs. 259 [4.1%]; hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.30; P=0.26). Triglyceride levels were reduced by 14.5 mg per deciliter (0.16 mmol per liter) more among patients receiving n-3 fatty acids than among those receiving placebo (P<0.001), without a significant effect on other lipids. Adverse effects were similar in the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Daily supplementation with 1 g of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. (Funded by Sanofi; ORIGIN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00069784.).

Comment in

PMID:
22686415
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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