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PLoS Genet. 2012;8(6):e1002699. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002699. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

Genome-wide functional profiling identifies genes and processes important for zinc-limited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Abstract

Zinc is an essential nutrient because it is a required cofactor for many enzymes and transcription factors. To discover genes and processes in yeast that are required for growth when zinc is limiting, we used genome-wide functional profiling. Mixed pools of ∼4,600 deletion mutants were inoculated into zinc-replete and zinc-limiting media. These cells were grown for several generations, and the prevalence of each mutant in the pool was then determined by microarray analysis. As a result, we identified more than 400 different genes required for optimal growth under zinc-limiting conditions. Among these were several targets of the Zap1 zinc-responsive transcription factor. Their importance is consistent with their up-regulation by Zap1 in low zinc. We also identified genes that implicate Zap1-independent processes as important. These include endoplasmic reticulum function, oxidative stress resistance, vesicular trafficking, peroxisome biogenesis, and chromatin modification. Our studies also indicated the critical role of macroautophagy in low zinc growth. Finally, as a result of our analysis, we discovered a previously unknown role for the ICE2 gene in maintaining ER zinc homeostasis. Thus, functional profiling has provided many new insights into genes and processes that are needed for cells to thrive under the stress of zinc deficiency.

PMID:
22685415
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3369956
Free PMC Article

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