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Adv Cogn Psychol. 2012;8(2):98-108. doi: 10.2478/v10053-008-0107-z. Epub 2012 May 21.

Evidence of automatic processing in sequence learning using process-dissociation.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.


This paper proposes a way to apply process-dissociation to sequence learning in addition and extension to the approach used by Destrebecqz and Cleeremans (2001). Participants were trained on two sequences separated from each other by a short break. Following training, participants self-reported their knowledge of the sequences. A recognition test was then performed which required discrimination of two trained sequences, either under the instructions to call any sequence encountered in the experiment "old" (the inclusion condition), or only sequence fragments from one half of the experiment "old" (the exclusion condition). The recognition test elicited automatic and controlled process estimates using the process dissociation procedure, and suggested both processes were involved. Examining the underlying processes supporting performance may provide more information on the fundamental aspects of the implicit and explicit constructs than has been attainable through awareness testing.


consciousness; implicit learning; process-dissociation; sequence learning

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