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Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2012 Aug;12(4):399-409. doi: 10.1007/s11910-012-0286-3.

Botulinum toxin for the treatment of movement disorders.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 710 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.


After botulinum toxin was initially used to treat strabismus in the 1970s, others started using it to treat movement disorders including blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, and oromandibular dystonia. It was discovered that botulinum toxin can be an effective treatment for focal movement disorders with limited side effects. Over the past three decades, various formulations of botulinum toxin have been developed and the therapeutic use of these toxins has expanded in movement disorders and beyond. We review the history and mechanism of action of botulinum toxin, as well as describe different formulations available and their potential therapeutic uses in movement disorders.

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