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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Oct;93(10):1774-81. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.05.013. Epub 2012 May 24.

Validity and reliability of the perceived deficit questionnaire to assess cognitive symptoms in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

Author information

  • 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Clinical Research Excellence - Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. h.takasaki@uq.edu.au



To investigate the validity and reliability of the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire (PDQ) for use in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders.




Tertiary institution.


Patients (N=105) with chronic whiplash-associated disorders and asymptomatic controls (n=50).


Not applicable.


The 20-item PDQ inclusive of 4 sections (attention/concentration, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and organization/planning) rated on a 5-point scale.


Internal construct validity of the PDQ was examined by Rasch analysis, confirming the appropriateness of its 5-point scale and the unidimensionality of each section after modification by eliminating 1 item each from the attention/concentration and retrospective memory sections. Preliminary evidence was also gained for external construct validity (convergent validity) of the modified PDQ by demonstrating significant (P<.05) correlations of all sections with a global measure of disability due to neck pain (the Neck Disability Index). The whiplash group demonstrated significantly (P<.05) higher scores in each section of the modified PDQ than did the control group, indicating evidence for discriminant validity. In addition, the modified PDQ demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch-generated reliability >.8) and acceptable test-retest reliability with 1-month interval (intraclass correlation coefficients >.8).


The modified PDQ appears to be a valid and reliable questionnaire and could be used quickly in clinical practice to gain a basic understanding of perceived cognitive symptoms in people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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