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Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jun;106(6):376-81. doi: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2012.03.007. Epub 2012 May 11.

A proposed new clinical staging system for patients with mucosal leishmaniasis.

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  • 1Serviço de Imunologia, Complexo Hospitalar Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.


Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs mainly in areas where Leishmania braziliensis is transmitted. It affects predominantly the nasal mucosa and, in more severe forms, can lead to significant tissue destruction. There is no standard method for grading the severity of disease. We categorised 50 patients with ML according to a proposed new clinical staging system. Their age ranged from 10 to 86 y (mean ± SD: 36 ± 16 y) and 43 (86%) patients were male. The different degrees of evolution of mucosal disease, from the initial stage to the more severe long-term cases, enabled ML to be graded into five stages. Stage I is characterised by nodular lesions of the mucosa without ulceration. Stage II is represented by superficial mucosal ulcerations with concomitant fine granular lesions. Stage III is characterised by deep mucosal ulcerations with granular tissue formation. In stage IV there are irreversible lesions leading to perforation of the cartilaginous nasal septum with necrosis. In stage V the nasal pyramid is compromised with alterations of facial features as a consequence of severe tissue destruction. These stages may be useful in characterising the severity of the lesion and optimising therapeutic outcome.

Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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