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Int J Nephrol. 2012;2012:420247. doi: 10.1155/2012/420247. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Emergency management of hypertension in children.

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  • 1Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL-37, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Abstract

Systemic arterial hypertension in children has traditionally been thought to be secondary in origin. Increased incidence of risk factors like obesity, sedentary life-styles, and faulty dietary habits has led to increased prevalence of the primary arterial hypertension (PAH), particularly in adolescent age children. PAH has become a global epidemic worldwide imposing huge economic constraint on health care. Sudden acute increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure can lead to hypertensive crisis. While it generally pertains to secondary hypertension, occurrence of hypertensive crisis in PAH is however rare in children. Hypertensive crisis has been further subclassified depending on presence or absence of end-organ damage into hypertensive emergency or urgency. Both hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing awareness among the physicians, targeted at investigation of the pathophysiology of hypertension and its complications, better screening methods, generation, and implementation of novel treatment modalities will impact overall outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and management of hypertensive crisis in children. An extensive database search using keywords was done to obtain the information.

PMID:
22577545
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3345222
Free PMC Article
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