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J Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;205 Suppl 3:S375-82. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis200.

Immunologic basis of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected adults.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California-San Francisco, 995 Potrero Ave., San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.


Cardiovascular complications are more common in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals than in age-matched uninfected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular complications, suggesting that viral replication directly or indirectly causes vascular disease. Long-term effective antiretroviral therapy does not fully restore vascular health, and treated adults continue to have higher-than-expected rates of disease progression. Although this excess risk during therapy is likely due to multiple factors, a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic inflammation, which persists during effective antiretroviral therapy, is directly and causally associated with vascular dysfunction and the accelerated development of atherosclerosis.

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