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J Pediatr Psychol. 2012 Sep;37(8):935-44. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jss066. Epub 2012 May 9.

A longitudinal examination of verbal reassurance during infant immunization: occurrence and examination of emotional availability as a potential moderator*.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychology, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M3J 1P3. rpr@yorku.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study investigated the associations between caregiver verbal reassurance and infant pain-related distress during immunization over the first year of life. The relationships between verbal reassurance and caregiver emotional availability (EA) were also examined. Finally, EA was investigated as a moderator of the relationship between verbal reassurance and infant pain.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with 606 infants (and their parents) at 4 different ages (n = 376 at 2 months, n = 455 at 4 months, n = 484 at 6 months, and n = 407 at 12 months).

RESULTS:

Verbal reassurance was positively associated with infant distress across all four ages. EA was only negatively related to verbal reassurance at 12 months of age. EA was not a significant moderator at any age.

CONCLUSION:

Findings demonstrate consistent but small relationships between verbal reassurance and infant pain over the first year of life.

PMID:
22575732
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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