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Public Health. 2012 Jun;126(6):490-7. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2012.02.013. Epub 2012 May 9.

Differences in dietary quality and adequacy by smoking status among a Canadian Aboriginal population.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, 1-126 Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.



To assess dietary adequacy and quality among Inuvialuit smokers compared with non-smokers in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada.


Cross-sectional study.


A validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered between July 2007 and July 2008 to individuals of randomly selected households in three NWT communities to capture dietary intake and smoking habits over a 30-day recall period. Daily energy and nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and the top food contributors to energy and selected nutrients were determined by smoking status.


Intakes of energy and several nutrients were higher among male and female smokers compared with non-smokers. Male smokers had similar daily nutrient density (per 1000 kcal consumed) of all nutrients. Female smokers had significantly lower intake densities of protein, fibre, folate, magnesium, vitamin D, vitamin E (P ≤ 0.05) and thiamin (P ≤ 0.01), and higher intake densities of sugar and vitamins C and K (P ≤ 0.05). Among male and female smokers, more than 50% had inadequate intakes of fibre, potassium and vitamin E. Non-nutrient-dense foods contributed similar amounts to energy intake, and traditional foods contributed 3-6% less to energy and protein intakes among smokers compared with non-smokers.


Adult Inuvialuit smokers had higher caloric intake and lower dietary quality, including less consumption of traditional foods, compared with non-smokers. Fewer dietary inadequacies were observed among smokers than non-smokers, which may be due to higher energy intake among smokers.

Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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