Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2012 Mar;41(1):1-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Insulins: past, present, and future.

Author information

  • 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


This article highlights selected milestones in insulin discovery and its continued development as a pivotal therapy for diabetes. The last 90 years have witnessed tremendous progress in insulin therapy, from the initial crude, yet life-saving, animal insulin extracts to novel human insulin analogues. Although the complete physiologic replacement of insulin is inherently difficult to achieve with open-loop subcutaneously administered insulin, the continued development of improved injectable insulin formulations with superior pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will enhance glucose control, and represents important clinical advances in the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk