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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012 Aug;44(8):1203-13. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2012.04.011. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

High glucose levels induce inhibition of Na,K-ATPase via stimulation of aldose reductase, formation of microtubules and formation of an acetylated tubulin/Na,K-ATPase complex.

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  • 1Departamento de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, 5800 Córdoba, Argentina.

Abstract

Our previous studies demonstrated that acetylated tubulin forms a complex with Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and thereby inhibits its enzyme activity in cultured COS and CAD cells. The enzyme activity was restored by treatment of cells with l-glutamate, which caused dissociation of the acetylated tubulin/Na(+),K(+)-ATPase complex. Addition of glucose, but not elimination of glutamate, led to re-formation of the complex and inhibition of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect of glucose. We found that exposure of cells to high glucose concentrations induced: (a) microtubule formation; (b) activation of aldose reductase by the microtubules; (c) association of tubulin with membrane; (d) formation of the acetylated tubulin/Na(+),K(+)-ATPase complex and consequent inhibition of enzyme activity. Exposure of cells to sorbitol caused similar effects. Studies on erythrocytes from diabetic patients and on tissues containing insulin-insensitive glucose transporters gave similar results. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was >50% lower and membrane-associated tubulin content was >200% higher in erythrocyte membranes from diabetic patients as compared with normal subjects. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that acetylated tubulin was a constituent of a complex with Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in erythrocyte membranes from diabetic patients. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism whereby glucose triggers a synergistic effect of tubulin and sorbitol, leading to activation of aldose reductase, microtubule formation, and consequent Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibition.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22565168
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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