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Ann Pharmacother. 2012 May;46(5):703-9. doi: 10.1345/aph.1Q546. Epub 2012 May 1.

Antihypertensive drugs in patients treated with antiretrovirals.

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  • 1Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, UMI233 TransVIHMI, University Hospital of Montpellier, Montpellier, France. h-peyriere@chu-montpellier.fr

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review the literature for information regarding pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and antihypertensive agents, evaluate the clinical significance of these interactions, and analyze the effect of antihypertensive drugs on the metabolic complications frequently observed in HIV-infected patients to emphasize the advantages and inconveniences of every class of antihypertensive drugs in association with antiretrovirals.

DATA SOURCES:

A literature search was conducted via PubMed and MEDLINE (1950-November 2011) using the search terms drug interactions, cytochrome P450, names of antiretrovirals, names of commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs, pharmacokinetics, and metabolic complications. Reference citations from relevant publications, manufacturers' product information, and www.HIV-druginteractions.org were also reviewed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTIONS: All articles with an English abstract identified through the data search were examined. Of these, pharmacologic reviews, studies, and case reports were evaluated.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Antihypertensive drugs interact with several antiretroviral drugs, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in particular. Pharmacokinetic interactions are less expected with diuretics, β-blockers excreted by the kidney, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) other than losartan and irbesartan. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are metabolized by CYP3A4, with the potential for interaction with NNRTIs and PIs. Because CCBs do not adversely affect glucose or lipid metabolism or renal function, they may be preferred in patients with such complications. ACE inhibitors and ARBs may exert favorable effects on glucose homeostasis. In addition, they may significantly reduce protein excretion and further slow the progression of renal disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

The choice of antihypertensive drugs in HIV-infected patients is complex and must take into account the metabolic pathways of antiretroviral drugs and antihypertensive drugs with the potential of pharmacokinetic interactions, as well as the effect of antihypertensive drugs on some biological parameters.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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