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J Mol Neurosci. 2012 Sep;48(1):281-90. doi: 10.1007/s12031-012-9770-0. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Low-frequency ultrasound irradiation increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by transcellular pathway in a rat glioma model.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, China.

Abstract

Low-frequency ultrasound (LFU) irradiation under certain acoustic intensity can increase blood-brain barrier permeability non-invasively and reversibly. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of LFU irradiation on blood-tumor barrier (BTB) permeability in rat C6 glioma model and the possible mechanism. In this research, Evans blue and H&E staining were used to evaluate the optimal parameter of LFU to open the BTB without damaging the normal brain tissue. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the changes of the number of pinocytotic vesicles in cerebral or glioma microvascular endothelial cells. The phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase Src, caveolin-1, and caveolin-2 was detected by western blot. The distribution and expressing levels of caveolae proteins, caveolin-1 and caveolin-2, were detected by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Our research data showed that, in rat C6 glioma model, LFU irradiation at a frequency of 1 MHz, a power of 12 mW, and exposure time of 20 s induced the increase of BTB permeability temporally, which reached a peak at 1.5 h, then decreased and restored to normal level at 12 h after LFU irradiation. In the glioma microvascular endothelial cells of rat glioma model, LFU irradiation induced a significant increase of the pinocytotic vesicles' density. The phosphorylation of Src, caveolin-1, and caveolin-2 began to increase at 0.5 h and reached a maximum at 1 h. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining showed that caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 were co-localized in the glioma microvascular endothelial cells and glioma cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 were up-regulated, reached the peak value at 1.5 h, and re-normalized at 12 h after LFU irradiation. These results demonstrated that LFU irradiation increased BTB permeability by promoting transcellular transport in glioma microvascular endothelial cells. The phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase Src, caveolin-1, caveolin-2 and up-regulation of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 were involved in LFU-induced caveolae-mediated endocytosis.

PMID:
22528460
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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