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Free Radic Res. 2012 Jul;46(7):912-9. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2012.687448. Epub 2012 May 10.

Activation of PPARδ counteracts angiotensin II-induced ROS generation by inhibiting rac1 translocation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

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  • 1Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul, Korea.


Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated modification of the redox milieu of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in several pathophysiological processes, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ counteracts Ang II-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VSMCs. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPARδ, significantly reduced Ang II-induced ROS generation in VSMCs. This effect was, however, reversed in the presence of small interfering (si)RNA against PPARδ. The marked increase in ROS levels induced by Ang II was also eliminated by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) but not of protein kinase C, suggesting the involvement of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in this process. Accordingly, ablation of Akt with siRNA further enhanced the inhibitory effects of GW501516 in Ang II-induced superoxide production. Ligand-activated PPARδ also blocked Ang II-induced translocation of Rac1 to the cell membrane, inhibiting the activation of NADPH oxidases and consequently ROS generation. These results indicate that ligand-activated PPARδ plays an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress by decreasing ROS generated by Ang II in vascular cells.

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