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Phys Sportsmed. 2012 Feb;40(1):84-90. doi: 10.3810/psm.2012.02.1954.

Shoulder injuries in the throwing athlete.

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  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19131, USA.


Shoulder injuries in the throwing athlete are becoming more frequent. Sports specialization at a younger age, playing multiple seasons, increased awareness of injury and injury prevention, advances in diagnosis, and surgical treatment all play a part in the increase in diagnosis of these injuries. Understanding the biomechanics of throwing and pathologies that are encountered in the throwing athlete can aid the clinician in successful diagnosis and nonoperative/operative treatment of the throwing athlete. This article discusses the relevant anatomy, biomechanics, and pathoanatomy of the throwing shoulder. Additionally, understanding the kinetic chain can assist in the nonoperative rehabilitation of the injured shoulder. Surgical reconstruction is indicated when nonoperative efforts have been exhausted and is directed based on the extent of the pathology to the capsuloligamentous structures, labrum, and rotator cuff.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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