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Diabetes Care. 2012 Jul;35(7):1591-7. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0226. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a novel predictor of end-stage renal disease.

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  • 1Department of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka, Japan.



There is now growing evidence that magnesium (Mg) deficiency is implicated in type 2 diabetes and its complications. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether hypomagnesemia is a predictor of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.


This retrospective cohort study included 455 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (144 with type 2 diabetic nephropathy and 311 with nondiabetic CKD) who were hospitalized at Osaka General Medical Center for a CKD educational program between April 2001 and December 2007. The primary outcome was progression to renal replacement therapy. Participants were categorized based on serum Mg level into Low-Mg (serum Mg level ≤1.8 mg/dL) and High-Mg (serum Mg level >1.8 mg/dL) groups with the previously published normal lower limit chosen as the cutoff point.


Of the subjects with type 2 diabetic nephropathy, 102 progressed to ESRD during follow-up (median, 23 months). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that after adjustment for various demographic factors and laboratory data, the Low-Mg group had a 2.12-fold higher risk of ESRD than the High-Mg group (95% CI 1.28-3.51; P = 0.004). In contrast, 135 of the nondiabetic CKD subjects progressed to ESRD during follow-up (median, 44 months). No significant difference in outcome was found between the Low- and High-Mg groups of this population (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI 0.70-1.90; P = 0.57).


Hypomagnesemia is a novel predictor of ESRD in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

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