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Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 Jun;19(6):825-34. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00058-12. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a induces cross-reactive humoral immune responses against Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B in humans.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection has emerged as an important public health problem. Recognizing that in randomized controlled field trials oral immunization with attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhi live vaccine Ty21a conferred significant cross-protection against S. Paratyphi B but not S. Paratyphi A disease, we undertook a clinical study to ascertain whether humoral immune responses could explain the field trial results. Ty21a immunization of adult residents of Maryland elicited predominantly IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) that recognize S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cross-reactivity to S. Paratyphi A LPS was significantly lower than that to S. Paratyphi B LPS. ASC producing IgG and IgA that bind LPS from each of these Salmonella serovars expressed CD27 and integrin α4β7 (gut homing), with a significant proportion coexpressing CD62L (secondary lymphoid tissue homing). No significant differences were observed in serum antibody against LPS of the different serovars. Levels of IgA B memory (B(M)) cells to S. Typhi LPS were significantly higher than those against S. Paratyphi A or B LPS, with no differences observed between S. Paratyphi A and B. The response of IgA B(M) to outer membrane proteins (OMP) from S. Typhi was significantly stronger than that to OMP of S. Paratyphi A but similar to that to OMP of S. Paratyphi B. The percentages of IgG or IgA B(M) responders to LPS or OMP from these Salmonella strains were similar. Whereas cross-reactive humoral immune responses to S. Paratyphi A or B antigens are demonstrable following Ty21a immunization, they cannot explain the efficacy data gleaned from controlled field trials.

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