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J Virol. 2012 Jun;86(11):6246-57. doi: 10.1128/JVI.07168-11. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Suppression of antigen-specific T cell responses by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral OX2 protein and its cellular orthologue, CD200.

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  • 1School of Cancer Sciences, CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Regulating appropriate activation of the immune response in the healthy host despite continual immune surveillance dictates that immune responses must be either self-limiting and therefore negatively regulated following their activation or prevented from developing inappropriately. In the case of antigen-specific T cells, their response is attenuated by several mechanisms, including ligation of CTLA-4 and PD-1. Through the study of the viral OX2 (vOX2) immunoregulator encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we have identified a T cell-attenuating role both for this protein and for CD200, a cellular orthologue of the viral vOX2 protein. In vitro, antigen-presenting cells (APC) expressing either native vOX2 or CD200 suppressed two functions of cognate antigen-specific T cell clones: gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and mobilization of CD107a, a cytolytic granule component and measure of target cell killing ability. Mechanistically, vOX2 and CD200 expression on APC suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in responding T cells. These data provide the first evidence for a role of both KSHV vOX2 and cellular CD200 in the negative regulation of antigen-specific T cell responses. They suggest that KSHV has evolved to harness the host CD200-based mechanism of attenuation of T cell responses to facilitate virus persistence and dissemination within the infected individual. Moreover, our studies define a new paradigm in immune modulation by viruses: the provision of a negative costimulatory signal to T cells by a virus-encoded orthologue of CD200.

PMID:
22491458
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3372194
Free PMC Article

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