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Int J Cell Biol. 2012;2012:182834. doi: 10.1155/2012/182834. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Reticulophagy and ribophagy: regulated degradation of protein production factories.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology and Institute of Biomembranes, University Medical Centre Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

During autophagy, cytosol, protein aggregates, and organelles are sequestered into double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome/vacuole for breakdown and recycling of their basic components. In all eukaryotes this pathway is important for adaptation to stress conditions such as nutrient deprivation, as well as to regulate intracellular homeostasis by adjusting organelle number and clearing damaged structures. For a long time, starvation-induced autophagy has been viewed as a nonselective transport pathway; however, recent studies have revealed that autophagy is able to selectively engulf specific structures, ranging from proteins to entire organelles. In this paper, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms and physiological implications of two selective types of autophagy: ribophagy, the specific degradation of ribosomes, and reticulophagy, the selective elimination of portions of the ER.

PMID:
22481944
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3299282
Free PMC Article
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