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PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33883. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033883. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Population genetics of two asexually and sexually reproducing psocids species inferred by the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

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  • 1Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The psocids Liposcelis bostrychophila and L. entomophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) are found throughout the world and are often associated with humans, food stores and habitations. These insects have developed high levels of resistance to various insecticides in grain storage systems. However, the population genetic structure and gene flow of psocids has not been well categorized, which is helpful to plan appropriate strategies for the control of these pests.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:

The two species were sampled from 15 localities in China and analyzed for polymorphisms at the mitochondrial DNA (Cytb) and ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) regions. In total, 177 individual L. bostrychophila and 272 individual L. entomophila were analysed. Both Cytb and ITS sequences showed high genetic diversity for the two species with haplotype diversities ranged from 0.154 ± 0.126 to 1.000 ± 0.045, and significant population differentiation (mean F(ST) = 0.358 for L. bostrychophila; mean F(ST) = 0.336 for L. entomophila) was also detected among populations investigated. A Mantel test indicated that for both species there was no evidence for isolation-by-distance (IBD). The neutrality test and mismatch distribution statistics revealed that the two species might have undergone population expansions in the past.

CONCLUSION:

Both L. bostrychophila and L. entomophila displayed high genetic diversity and widespread population genetic differentiation within and between populations. The significant population differentiation detected for both psocids may be mainly due to other factors, such as genetic drift, inbreeding or control practices, and less by geographic distance since an IBD effect was not found.

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