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Clin Cancer Res. 2012 May 15;18(10):2930-42. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2390. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Microarray analysis verifies two distinct phenotypes of glioblastomas resistant to antiangiogenic therapy.

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  • 1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.



To identify mechanisms and mediators of resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in human glioblastoma.


We carried out microarray gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry comparing 21 recurrent glioblastomas progressing during antiangiogenic treatment with VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab to paired pretreatment tumors from the same patients.


Microarray analysis revealed that bevacizumab-resistant glioblastomas (BRG) had two clustering patterns defining subtypes that reflect radiographic growth patterns. Enhancing BRGs (EBRG) exhibited MRI enhancement, a long-established criterion for glioblastoma progression, and expressed mitogen-activated protein kinases, neural cell adhesion molecule-1 (NCAM-1), and aquaporin 4. Compared with their paired pretreatment tumors, EBRGs had unchanged vascularity and hypoxia, with increased proliferation. Nonenhancing BRGs (NBRG) exhibited minimal MRI enhancement but had FLAIR-bright expansion, a newer criterion for glioblastoma recurrence since the advent of antiangiogenic therapy, and expressed integrin α5, laminin, fibronectin1, and PDGFRβ. NBRGs had less vascularity, more hypoxia, and unchanged proliferation than their paired pretreatment tumors. Primary NBRG cells exhibited more stellate morphology with a 3-fold increased shape factor and were nearly 4-fold more invasive in Matrigel chambers than primary cells from EBRGs or bevacizumab-naive glioblastomas (P < 0.05).


Using microarray analysis, we found two resistance patterns during antiangiogenic therapy with distinct molecular profiles and radiographic growth patterns. These studies provide valuable biologic insight into the resistance that has limited antiangiogenic therapy to date.

©2012 AACR.

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