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Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar;16(2):283-7. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.93754.

Protocol-based metabolic evaluation in high-risk patients with renal stones in North India.

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  • 1Department of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Renal calculus disease has a lifetime recurrence rate of 80%. Protocol-based metabolic evaluation in high-risk subjects for recurrent renal stones reveals abnormalities in a large subset of subjects. However, such information is not available in Indian subjects.

AIMS:

To evaluate the abnormalities by a protocol-based metabolic evaluation in patients at a high risk for recurrent renal stones.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN:

Prospective, academic tertiary care center.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Fifty North Indian patients (38 males and 12 females; mean age 38 ± 10.2 years) with recurrent or bilateral renal stones were evaluated. All subjects underwent a protocol-based evaluation involving estimation of serum total calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, albumin, iPTH, 25(OH)D(3), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and a calcium load test. Estimation of daily urinary excretion of volume, oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and citrate, and urinary acidification studies were performed.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:

Descriptive statistics and t-test.

RESULTS:

An underlying disorder was detected in 48 (96%) patients. Almost half had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The metabolic abnormalities detected were: Hypercalciuria 26 (52%) patients, renal hypercalciuria 16 (32%), absorptive hypercalciuria 6 (12%), unclassified hypercalciuria 4 (8%), hyperoxaluria 27 (54%), hyperuricosuria 9 (18%), distal renal tubular acidosis 4 (8%; 2 complete and 2 partial), primary hyperparathyroidism 3 (6%), and hypocitraturia 14 (n=18, 77%). In two patients, the etiology could not be detected.

CONCLUSIONS:

Protocol-based metabolic evaluation reveals metabolic abnormalities in majority of patients with nephrolithiasis. The spectrums of metabolic abnormalities are different in Indian subjects as compared to the western population.

KEYWORDS:

Hypercalciuria; India; metabolic evaluation; renal stones

PMID:
22470869
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3313750
Free PMC Article
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