Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2012 Jun;53(5):334-42. doi: 10.1002/em.21692. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Epigenetic responses following maternal dietary exposure to physiologically relevant levels of bisphenol A.

Author information

  • 1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.


Animal studies have linked perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure to altered DNA methylation, but little attention is given to analyzing multiple physiologically relevant doses. Utilizing the viable yellow agouti (A(vy)) mouse, we examine the effects of developmental exposure through maternal diet to 50 ng BPA/kg (n = 14 litters), 50 μg BPA/kg (n = 9 litters), or 50 mg BPA/kg (n = 13 litters) on global and candidate gene methylation at postnatal day 22. Global methylation analysis reveals hypermethylation in tail tissue of a/a and A(vy)/a offspring across all dose groups compared with controls (n = 11 litters; P < 0.02). Analysis of coat color phenotype replicates previous work showing that the distribution of 50 mg BPA/kg A(vy)/a offspring shifts toward yellow (P = 0.006) by decreasing DNA methylation in the retrotransposon upstream of the Agouti gene (P = 0.03). Maternal exposure to 50 μg or 50 ng BPA/kg, however, results in altered coat color distributions in comparison with control (P = 0.04 and 0.02), but no DNA methylation effects at the Agouti gene are noted. DNA methylation at the CDK5 activator-binding protein (Cabp(IAP)) metastable epiallele shows hypermethylation in the 50 μg BPA/kg offspring, compared with controls (P = 0.02). Comparison of exposed mouse liver BPA levels to human fetal liver BPA levels indicates that the three experimental exposures are physiologically relevant. Thus, perinatal BPA exposure affects offspring phenotype and epigenetic regulation across multiple doses, indicating the need to evaluate dose effects in human clinical and population studies.

Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk