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Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2011 Sep;8(3):9-13.

Phosphatonins: new hormones involved in numerous inherited bone disorders.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Bone Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.


Phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is under control of several endocrine factors that play effects on bone, kidney and intestine. The control of Pi homeostasis has a significant biological importance, as it relates to numerous cellular mechanisms involved in energy metabolism, cell signaling, nucleic acid synthesis, membrane function, as well as skeletal health and integrity. Pi is essential for diverse biological processes, and negative Pi balance resulting from improperly regulated intestinal absorption, systemic utilization, and renal excretion. As results of these functions, chronic Pi deprivation causes several biological alterations, such as bone demineralization with unmineralized osateoid typical of osteomalacia in adults and rickets in developing animals and humans (1). Phosphatonins are new hormones playing an important role in the control of Pi homeostasis together with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3). Most insight into the underlying mechanisms was established by defining the molecular basis of different inherited disorders that are characterized by an abnormal regulation of Pi homeostasis.


bone metabolism; genetic disorders; phosphate homeostasis; phosphatonins

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