Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(11):1652-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis253. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Increasingly successful highly active antiretroviral therapy delays the emergence of new HLA class I-associated escape mutations in HIV-1.

Author information

  • 1BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, Canada.



HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) exert strong selective pressures on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), leading to escape mutations compromising virologic control. Immune responses continue to shape HIV-1 evolution after HAART initiation, but the extent and rate at which this occurs remain incompletely quantified. Here, we characterize the incidence and clinical correlates of HLA-associated evolution in HIV-1 Pol after HAART initiation in a large, population-based observational cohort.


British Columbia HAART Observational, Medical Evaluation and Research cohort participants with available HLA class I types and longitudinal posttherapy protease/reverse transcriptase sequences were studied (n = 619; median, 5 samples per patient and 5.2 years of follow-up). HLA-associated polymorphisms were defined according to published reference lists. Rates and correlates of immune-mediated HIV-1 evolution were investigated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models incorporating baseline and time-dependent plasma viral load and CD4 response data.


New HLA-associated escape events were observed in 269 (43%) patients during HAART and occurred at 49 of 63 (78%) investigated immune-associated sites in Pol. In time-dependent analyses adjusting for baseline factors, poorer virologic, but not immunologic, response to HAART was associated with increased risk of immune escape of 1.9-fold per log(10) viral load increment (P < .0001). Reversion of escape mutations following HAART initiation was extremely rare.


HLA-associated HIV-1 evolution continues during HAART to an extent that is inversely related to the virologic success of therapy. Minimizing the degree of immune escape could represent a secondary benefit of effective HAART.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk