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Personal Disord. 2012 Jan;3(1):17-38. doi: 10.1037/a0023888.

Development and construct validation of MMPI-2-RF indices of global psychopathy, fearless-dominance, and impulsive-antisociality.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa 35487-0348, USA.


This paper reports on three psychopathy indices derived from scores on the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008). In Study 1, we describe the development of such indices referenced to the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and its two distinguishable facets, Fearless-Dominance and Impulsive-Antisociality. We estimated psychopathy scores by regressing PPI scores onto conceptually selected MMPI-2-RF scales in a combined sample of 825 college students and correctional inmates. In Study 2, we explored the construct validity of these psychopathy measures in college student and correctional samples. The measures demonstrated conceptually expected patterns of associations with other established psychopathy inventories, and with psychopathy-related traits including narcissism, sensation seeking, antisociality, and impulsivity as well as broad personality and temperament factors. In Study 3, we used data from a large sample of outpatient mental health clients to establish the validity of the MMPI-2-RF psychopathy measures in relation to legal and mental health variables and therapist ratings of antisociality, narcissism, aggression, and internalizing problems. Theoretical implications of findings from these three studies for the psychopathy construct (including for DSM-5) are discussed.

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