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PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33597. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033597. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition can enhance apoptosis of differentiated thyroid cancer cells induced by 131I.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China. james_mencius@hotmail.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) during radioiodine 131 ((131)I) therapy and whether NF-κB inhibition could enhance (131)I-induced apoptosis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cells in a synergistic manner.

METHODS:

Three human DTC cell lines were used. NF-κB inhibition was achieved by using a NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7082) or by p65 siRNA transfection. Methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay was performed for cell viability assessment. DNA-binding assay, luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot were adopted to determine function and expression changes of NF-κB. Then NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic factors XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL were measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by Western blot for caspase 3 and PARP, and by flow cytometry as well. An iodide uptake assay was performed to determine whether NF-κB inhibition could influence radioactive iodide uptake.

RESULTS:

The methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay showed significant decrease of viable cells by combination therapy than by mono-therapies. The DNA-binding assay and luciferase reporter assay showed enhanced NF-κB function and reporter gene activities due to (131)I, yet significant suppression was achieved by NF-κB inhibition. Western blot proved (131)I could increase nuclear NF-κB concentration, while NF-κB inhibition reduced NF-κB concentration. Western blot also demonstrated significant up-regulation of XIAP, cIAP1, and Bcl-xL after (131)I therapy. And inhibition of NF-κB could significantly down-regulate these factors. Finally, synergism induced by combined therapy was displayed by significant enhancements of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP from Western blot, and of Annexin V positively staining from flow cytometry. The iodine uptake assay did not show significant changes when NF-κB was inhibited.

CONCLUSION:

We demonstrated that (131)I could induce NF-κB activation, which would attenuate (131)I efficacy in DTC cells. NF-κB inhibition by Bay 11-7082 or by p65 siRNA transfection was effective in suppressing NF-κB regulated anti-apoptotic changes and in combined regimen apoptosis was achieved synergistically.

PMID:
22438958
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3306418
Free PMC Article
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