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Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2012 Apr 28;14(16):5808-14. doi: 10.1039/c2cp40603a. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Carbon coated nano-LiTi2(PO4)3 electrodes for non-aqueous hybrid supercapacitors.

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  • 1Energy Research Institute (ERI@N), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553, Singapore.


The Pechini type polymerizable complex decomposition method is employed to prepare LiTi(2)(PO(4))(3) at 1000 °C in air. High energy ball milling followed by carbon coating by the glucose-method yielded C-coated nano-LiTi(2)(PO(4))(3) (LTP) with a crystallite size of 80(±5) nm. The phase is characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, thermogravimetry, SEM, HR-TEM and Raman spectra. Lithium cycling properties of LTP show that 1.75 moles of Li (~121 mA h g(-1) at 15 mA g(-1) current) per formula unit can be reversibly cycled between 2 and 3.4 V vs. Li with 83% capacity retention after 70 cycles. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) reveal the two-phase reaction mechanism during Li insertion/extraction. A hybrid electrochemical supercapacitor (HEC) with LTP as negative electrode and activated carbon (AC) as positive electrode in non-aqueous electrolyte is studied by CV at various scan rates and by galvanostatic cycling at various current rates up to 1000 cycles in the range 0-3 V. Results show that the HEC delivers a maximum energy density of 14 W h kg(-1) and a power density of 180 W kg(-1).

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