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Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Mar 16;12(4):282-94. doi: 10.1038/nri3190.

Integration of B cell responses through Toll-like receptors and antigen receptors.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. drawling@u.washington.edu


Unlike other immune cells, B cells express both an antigen-specific B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Dual BCR and TLR engagement can fine-tune functional B cell responses, directly linking cell-intrinsic innate and adaptive immune programmes. Although most data regarding B cell-specific functions of the TLR signalling pathway have been obtained in mice, the discovery of patients with a deficiency in this pathway has recently provided an insight into human B cell responses. Here, we highlight the importance of the integration of signalling pathways downstream of BCRs and TLRs in modulating B cell function, focusing when possible on B cell-intrinsic roles.

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