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JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Mar;5(3):305-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2012.01.003.

Emerging trends in CV flow visualization.

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  • 1Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. Partho.Sengupta@mountsinai.org

Abstract

Blood flow patterns are closely linked to the morphology and function of the cardiovascular system. These patterns reflect the exceptional adaptability of the cardiovascular system to maintain normal blood circulation under a wide range of workloads. Accurate retrieval and display of flow-related information remains a challenge because of the processes involved in mapping the flow velocity fields within specific chambers of the heart. We review the potentials and pitfalls of current approaches for blood flow visualization, with an emphasis on acquisition, display, and analysis of multidirectional flow. This document is divided into 3 sections. First, we provide a descriptive outline of the relevant concepts in cardiac fluid mechanics, including the emergence of rotation in flow and the variables that delineate vortical structures. Second, we elaborate on the main methods developed to image and visualize multidirectional cardiovascular flow, which are mainly based on cardiac magnetic resonance, ultrasound Doppler, and contrast particle imaging velocimetry, with recommendations for developing dedicated imaging protocols. Finally, we discuss the potential clinical applications and technical challenges with suggestions for further investigations.

Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22421178
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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