Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Front Neuroanat. 2012 Mar 6;6:7. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2012.00007. eCollection 2012.

Developmental disorders of the midbrain and hindbrain.

Author information

  • 1Department of Radiology and Biomolecular Imaging, Neuroradiology Section, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco CA, USA.


Malformations of the midbrain (MB) and hindbrain (HB) have become topics of considerable interest in the neurology and neuroscience literature in recent years. The combined advances of imaging and molecular biology have improved analyses of structures in these areas of the central nervous system, while advances in genetics have made it clear that malformations of these structures are often associated with dysfunction or malformation of other organ systems. This review focuses upon the importance of communication between clinical researchers and basic scientists in the advancement of knowledge of this group of disorders. Disorders of anteroposterior (AP) patterning, cerebellar hypoplasias, disorders associated with defects of the pial limiting membrane (cobblestone cortex), disorders of the Reelin pathway, and disorders of the primary cilium/basal body organelle (molar tooth malformations) are the main focus of the review.


cerebellum; hindbrain; malformations; midbrain

Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk