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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Nov 1;84(3):793-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.12.049. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Apolipoprotein e genotype-dependent paradoxical short-term effects of (56)fe irradiation on the brain.

Author information

  • 1Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles (ε2, ε3, and ε4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of (56)Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk.

METHODS AND MATERIALS:

We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after (56)Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis.

RESULTS:

In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice.

CONCLUSIONS:

The short-term effects of (56)Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
22401921
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3742074
Free PMC Article

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