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J Grad Med Educ. 2011 Mar;3(1):88-94. doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-10-00052.1.

A multirater instrument for the assessment of simulated pediatric crises.



Few validated instruments exist to measure pediatric code team skills. The goal of this study was to develop an instrument for the assessment of resuscitation competency and self-appraisal using multirater and gap analysis methodologies.


Multirater assessment with gap analysis is a robust methodology that enables the measurement of self-appraisal as well as competency, offering faculty the ability to provide enhanced feedback. The Team Performance during Simulated Crises Instrument (TPDSCI) was grounded in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. The instrument contains 5 competencies, each assessed by a series of descriptive rubrics. It was piloted during a series of simulation-based interdisciplinary pediatric crisis resource management education sessions. Course faculty assessed participants, who also did self-assessments. Internal consistency and interrater reliability were analyzed using Cronbach α and intraclass correlation (ICC) statistics. Gap analysis results were examined descriptively.


Cronbach α for the instrument was between 0.72 and 0.69. The overall ICC was 0.82. ICC values for the medical knowledge, clinical skills, communication skills, and systems-based practice were between 0.87 and 0.72. The ICC for the professionalism domain was 0.22. Further examination of the professionalism competency revealed a positive skew, 43 simulated sessions (98%) had significant gaps for at least one of the competencies, 38 sessions (86%) had gaps indicating self-overappraisal, and 15 sessions (34%) had gaps indicating self-underappraisal.


The TPDSCI possesses good measures of internal consistency and interrater reliability with respect to medical knowledge, clinical skills, communication skills, systems-based practice, and overall competence in the context of simulated interdisciplinary pediatric medical crises. Professionalism remains difficult to assess. These results provide an encouraging first step toward instrument validation. Gap analysis reveals disparities between faculty and self-assessments that indicate inadequate participant self-reflection. Identifying self-overappraisal can facilitate focused interventions.

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