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Plant J. 2012 Jul;71(1):71-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2012.04971.x. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

The impact of photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a mutations on the photoperiod pathway across the three genomes of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum).

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  • 1Crop Genetics Department, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. lindsay.shaw@csiro.au

Abstract

Flowering time is a trait that has been extensively altered during wheat domestication, enabling it to be highly productive in diverse environments and providing a rich source of variation for studying adaptation mechanisms. Hexaploid wheat is ancestrally a long-day plant, but many environments require varieties with photoperiod insensitivity (PI) that can flower in short days. PI results from mutations in the Ppd-1 gene on the A, B or D genomes, with individual mutations conferring different degrees of earliness. The basis of this is poorly understood. Using a common genetic background, the effects of A, B and D genome PI mutations on genes of the circadian clock and photoperiod pathway were studied using genome-specific expression assays. Ppd-1 PI mutations did not affect the clock or immediate clock outputs, but affected TaCO1 and TaFT1, with a reduction in TaCO1 expression as TaFT1 expression increased. Therefore, although Ppd-1 is related to PRR genes of the Arabidopsis circadian clock, Ppd-1 affects flowering by an alternative route, most likely by upregulating TaFT1 with a feedback effect that reduces TaCO1 expression. Individual genes in the circadian clock and photoperiod pathway were predominantly expressed from one genome, and there was no genome specificity in Ppd-1 action. Lines combining PI mutations on two or three genomes had enhanced earliness with higher levels, but not earlier induction, of TaFT1, showing that there is a direct quantitative relationship between Ppd-1 mutations, TaFT1 expression and flowering.

© 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PMID:
22372488
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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