Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Stat Med. 2012 Sep 28;31(22):2516-30. doi: 10.1002/sim.4460. Epub 2012 Feb 24.

Efficient designs of gene-environment interaction studies: implications of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and gene-environment independence.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. jinboche@mail.med.upenn.edu

Abstract

It is important to investigate whether genetic susceptibility variants exercise the same effects in populations that are differentially exposed to environmental risk factors. Here, we assess the power of four two-stage case-control design strategies for assessing multiplicative gene-environment (G-E) interactions or for assessing genetic or environmental effects in the presence of G-E interactions. We considered a di-allelic single nucleotide polymorphism G and a binary environmental variable E under the constraints of G-E independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and used the Wald statistic for all tests. We concluded that (i) for testing G-E interactions or genetic effects in the presence of G-E interactions when data for E are fully available, it is preferable to ascertain data for G in a subsample of cases with similar numbers of exposed and unexposed and a random subsample of controls; and (ii) for testing G-E interactions or environmental effects in the presence of G-E interactions when data for G are fully available, it is preferable to ascertain data for E in a subsample of cases that has similar numbers for each genotype and a random subsample of controls. In addition, supplementing external control data to an existing case-control sample leads to improved power for assessing effects of G or E in the presence of G-E interactions.

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID:
22362617
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3448495
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (5)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk