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Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012 Nov;47(11):1717-25. doi: 10.1007/s00127-012-0485-x. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Association between annual earnings and mental disorders in Spain: individual and societal-level estimates.

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  • 1Health Services Research Unit, IMIM, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar, 88, Carrer del Doctor Aiguader, E-80003 Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Indirect costs of mental disorders are considerable and include loss of work productivity. We aimed to study the association between personal annual earnings and common mental disorders in Spain.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional population study of a representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults from Spain was performed (ESEMeD-Spain). CIDI 3.0 was administered to assess DSM IV mental disorders, and the Sheehan Disability Scales were used for severity appraisal. Four categories of mental disorders were defined: 12-month serious, 12-month moderate, 12-month mild, and lifetime. Personal annual earnings were assessed. Three models were fitted to estimate differences in annual earnings associated with mental disorders, controlling for sociodemographic variables.

RESULTS:

Prevalence rates of 12-month mental disorders were: mild 4.6%, moderate 3.8%, and serious 1.6%. Respondents with 12-month serious mental disorder (SMD) were less likely to report any earnings compared to those with no mental disorders (OR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.07-0.34, p < 0.001). The earnings gap associated with SMD at the individual level was <euro> 3,935, about 55% less than individuals with no mental disorders. Taking prevalence into account, the societal impact of SMD in Spain was estimated at <euro> 1.40 million annually.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first study in Spain that describes the earnings gap between individuals with and without mental disorders. Despite the low prevalence of SMD, they represent considerable societal-level productivity loss. Prevention and treatment of SMD should improve work productivity.

PMID:
22349150
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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