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Indian J Psychol Med. 2011 Jul;33(2):177-81. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.92059.

Cognitive Dysfunction in Normally Aging Urban Older Adults: A Community-based Study.

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  • 1Department of Geriatric Mental Health, CSM Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Does cognitive screening rule out impairment of different cognitive functions of older adults in India? This study is an attempt to explore these issues.


Study sample consisted of 89 Mixed version of Mini Mental State Examination and Hindi Mental State Examination (Mixed MMSE) negative older adults aged ≥60 years. Subjects giving informed consent for the study were recruited using inclusion/exclusion criteria from a randomly selected ward of urban Lucknow as consecutive series. Semi-structured proforma of sociodemographic details and Mixed MMSE were administered. Subjects scoring above 23 on Mixed MMSE and not having any significant physical illness in past one year which affects the activity of daily living were considered as normally aging older adults. These normally aging older adults (89) were further assessed on Brief Cognitive Rating Scale to identify level of cognitive functioning on different domains. Appropriate statistical test was used for data analyses using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 12.0 version.


Maximum normally aging older adults (51.7%) has mild level of objective dysfunction in "orientation" followed by "concentration" (22.5%). Significantly (P<0.05) higher number of normally aging males had objective dysfunction in "orientation" and in "functioning/self-care" in comparison with females. Similarly, significantly (P<0.05) higher number of subjects aged 70 years or more had subjective dysfunction on "recent and past memory" in comparison with those in 60 to 69 years of age.


Normally ageing subjects had objective cognitive dysfunction in the areas of "orientation" and "concentration" and "functioning/self care." It was found in more older adults with increasing age.


Brief cognitive rating scale; cognitive dysfunction; memory; mixed mini mental state examination; normal ageing

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